A pathological liar does not even start to describe a Narcissist’s use of lies when they are on the prowl for their supply!

A pathological liar does not even start to describe a Narcissist’s use of lies when they are on the prowl for their supply!

https://afternarcissisticabuse.wordpress.com/2018/12/18/a-pathological-liar-does-not-even-start-to-describe-a-narcissists-use-of-lies-when-they-are-on-the-prowl-for-their-supply/
— Read on afternarcissisticabuse.wordpress.com/2018/12/18/a-pathological-liar-does-not-even-start-to-describe-a-narcissists-use-of-lies-when-they-are-on-the-prowl-for-their-supply/

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder : Aftermath of relationship with NPD

This is not known or not exposed by professionals ..I remain targeted as long as I breathe , in my knowledge of truth and ownership of his property , NPD never forgive, never heal, never give up their fight towards truth, light and love .

What is Post Narcissist Stress Disorder (PNSD)?

Much like Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PNSD is a disorder that comes about after one has been living in close proximity to a narcissist. Living with a narcissist can be extremely taxing on a person. Narcissists tend to be extremely manipulative and abusive. They will often gaslight their victims and make everything about their own feelings.

After getting free of a narcissist’s influence, people can often experience a period of helplessness, anxiety, anger, or depression, much like what happens after a traumatic event. People with PNSD react much like people who have PTSD. There are three major signs for someone who is suffering from Post Narcissist Stress Disorder.

HERE ARE 3 SIGNS SOMEONE IS SUFFERING FROM POST NARCISSIST STRESS DISORDER

“Trauma is personal. It does not disappear if it is not validated. When it is ignored or invalidated the silent screams continue internally heard only by the one held captive.” – Danielle Bernock

1. FLASHBACKS

Much like PTSD, PNSD can also cause the survivor of the narcissist to have flashbacks to their time with them. This can happen for any reason. There are things called “triggers”, which can be any range of things. These triggers cause a person to “flashback” to their time with the narcissist.

According to the Royal College of Psychiatrists Public Education Committee, “You find yourself re-living the event, again and again. This can happen both as a ‘flashback’ in the day and as nightmares when you are asleep. These can be so realistic that it feels as though you are living through the experience all over again.” Triggers can be certain smells, certain places, certain behavior, or even certain sounds or words.

Many people who suffer from PNSD may have a hard time dealing with other people’s emotions because a narcissist will often fly into a rage at the drop of the hat. Someone suffering from PNSD may be triggered into a flashback when they perceive someone as being upset or angry with them. The survivor may also get flashbacks to periods of manipulation from the narcissist.

this may lead to extreme paranoia, where they wonder if the people around them are manipulating them. It may feel like they’re playing a game they just can’t win, even if no one around them has an ulterior motive.

2. AVOIDANCE

Someone who is suffering from PNSD may become avoidant of any number of things. This avoidance may manifest in an avoidance of people, places, things, activities, or even emotions. Narcissists tend to control their victims, using manipulation and anger to keep someone under their control. Even once the survivor is free from the narcissist’s power, they may still exhibit PNSD in the form of avoidance.

Often times, the survivor will avoid things that remind them of the narcissist’s anger or things they weren’t allowed to do while under the narcissist’s influence. They may also become emotionally avoidant. People who are victims of a narcissist will often be gaslighted into believing that their emotions are damaging to the narcissist. This may lead to someone with PNSD to be distant from their emotions because they had to learn not to feel anything to survive the narcissist.

3. DIFFICULTY RETURNING TO NORMAL LIFE

One of the major symptoms of both PTSD and PNSD is an extreme difficulty returning to normal life. For a person who is trying to return to day-to-day life after living with a narcissist, this may include anything from paranoia to panic attacks, to depression. Living with a narcissist can be extremely overwhelming, and someone who does so has to shift their expectations of day-to-day life.

They often have to learn to adapt to a “new normal.” Afterward, when they’re removed from the narcissist’s influence, the survivor may find it difficult to adjust to life again. They may have panic attacks or question their own memories and observations.

But there’s good news. According to Mayo Clinic, “Most people who go through traumatic events may have temporary difficulty adjusting and coping, but with time and good self-care, they usually get better.

HOW TO HELP SOMEONE SUFFERING FROM POST NARCISSIST STRESS DISORDER

Knowing the symptoms of PNSD can be incredibly helpful, especially when you’re trying to figure out what can be done to aid a survivor of a narcissist. Here are some ways to make the life of a survivor easier and help their transition from living with a narcissist to living their lives again.

1. LISTEN

Survivors will want to tell their truth as they remember it. Allow them to speak. Listen to them and validate what they’re saying. WikiHow states, “Use active listening. Don’t interrupt but try to repeat what you hear in order to make sure you understand. Let the conversation end if it becomes too intense.

Make sure they know that you hear them. It can be incredibly valuable to the healing process for a survivor to be heard.

2. VALIDATE THEIR EMOTIONS

They may be feeling all over the place, but the important part is they are feeling. Emotions aren’t “good” or “bad”. They’re neutral and important to our survival. If a survivor tells you that they’re feeling angry, or hurt, or afraid, listen to them and validate how they’re feeling. Even if the emotion isn’t appropriate for the situation, survivors often have to relearn how to use their emotions.

3. SUPPORT THEM

People who exit a relationship or living situation with a narcissist often have to build their support system from the ground up. “You can gently encourage and empower your loved one to start healing the rift by interacting with people and the world. Again, don’t push. Your loved one might resist, so simply promise to be there,” adds WikiHow.

Being there for them will mean more than you can imagine. Sometimes, all they need is someone to be there when things get rough. Even if you’re just there to offer a listening ear, you’ll make a world of difference.

REFERENCES:
HTTP://WWW.RCPSYCH.AC.UK/HEALTHADVICE/PROBLEMSANDDISORDERS/POSTTRAUMATICSTRESSDISORDER.ASPX
https://WWW.MAYOCLINIC.ORG/DISEASES-CONDITIONS/POST-TRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER/SYMPTOMS-CAUSES/SYC-20355967
HTTPS://WWW.WIKIHOW.COM/HELP-SOMEONE-WITH-POST-TRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER

2019 Childress files Ethics Committee Of APA – Late on my Day 3 of Xmas Gift

2019 is going to kick off with an interesting thing… I’m going to file an ethics complaint with the APA Ethics Committee against all of forensic psychology, the entire field, for violations of:

Standard 2.01a: Boundaries of Competence

Standard 9.01a: Competent Assessment

Standard 3.04: Harm to the Client

Standard 2.03: Maintaining Competence

Principle D: Justice

Duty to Protect

This same ethics complaint will also formally allege that the APA itself is colluding with the violation of ethical standards by covering up the violations of forensic psychology through not responding to the Petition to the APA.

That should be interesting, shouldn’t it… an ethics complaint to the APA alleging the APA is colluding with the violation of the APA ethics code by an entire field of psychology.

The media loves uncovering a cover up.

The Petition to the APA, signed by over 20,000 parents, was delivered to the APA offices in June of this year. It’s been six months. They’ve had more than enough time to respond.

Our first of three remedies in the Petition to the APA was for the APA to issue a simple press release affirming its support for Standard 2.01a of its own ethics code. That’s it. That’s all we’re asking for with the first remedy… a simple press release affirming that psychologists must know what they are doing.

The APA refuses to support its own ethics code requiring professional competence. Their silence speaks.

So that should be interesting, an ethics complaint to the APA that the APA is colluding with the violation of its own ethics code.

That starts 2019. Then… in February of 2019 I’m traveling to the Netherlands to present at a Symposium on February 25, at Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam. I will be presenting on AB-PA, it’s foundations, assessment, and diagnosis.

I have the great pleasure to be joined in this Symposium by Dr. Ad Oud who will present on trauma, along with presentations from Prof. Dr. Louis Tavecchio, Prof. Dr. Corine de Ruiter, and Prof. Dr. Maurits Barendrecht regarding the psychological, family, and legal issues surrounding “parental alienation” pathology in the Netherlands.

Knowledge is knowledge. Science is international.

Bowlby (attachment),

van der Kolk (complex trauma),

Minuchin (family systems),

Beck (personality disorders)

This is established professional knowledge. There is zero-nothing “new” about AB-PA. There is only knowledge and ignorance.

The force of knowledge is powerful, and it is relentless.

I know the established knowledge in all four of these professional domains; attachment, complex trauma, family systems therapy, and personality disorders. All mental health professionals who are working with your children and families (court-involved attachment pathology) should know all four of these professional domains of knowledge as well. If not, why not? What’s their justification for their ignorance?

Curriculum Knowledge Checklist

http://www.drcachildress.org/asp/admin/getFile.asp?RID=220&TID=6&FN=pdf

I am taking the quietude of the holiday season to read, in preparation for the coming days. Here is my December’s reading list:

Treating Complex Traumatic Stress Disorders: Scientific Foundations and Therapeutic Models. Courtois & Ford.

Principles of Trauma Therapy: A Guide to Symptoms, Evaluation, and Treatment. DSM-5 Update: Briere & Scott.

Born for Love: Why Empathy is Essential and Endangered. Szalavitz & Perry.

Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. Courtouis.

Changing Relationships: Strategies for Therapists and Coaches. Madanes.

I already know the trauma literature. But it’s time that everyone who works with your children and families knows this information, so I want to brush up.

Four trauma books, one family systems. The Madanes book is just a treat-bonus that was published earlier in the year. It just dropped in from heaven. Cloe Madanes is a top-top tier family systems therapist, and her linkage of family therapy and coaching is wonderful for what we are doing here in developing court-involved family solutions.

As for the trauma books, I already know the trauma literature (Perry, Briere, van der Kolk, Courtois, etc.) from the actual research studies they’ve published. Their books are based on their research and as a clinical psychologist working in any field (trauma, ADHD, autism, etc.) we are expected to know and stay current on the actual research.

But I’ve been away from complex trauma for a while, over here in court-involved clinical psychology, so I’m freshening my knowledge and looking for good quotes for the coming days.

To my professional colleagues: I’m reading this, why aren’t you? Have you read Bowlby when you’re working with an attachment pathology? Have you read Beck and Millon and Linehan and Kernberg when you’re working with personality disorder pathology? Have you read Minuchin and Bowen and Haley and Madanes when you’re conducting family therapy?

And have you read Briere and van der Kolk and Perry and Courtois when you’re working with the generational transmission of complex trauma?

Why not? Don’t you think it would be useful to know what you’re doing? I do. These children and families are placing their entire lives in your hands. Don’t you think you should know what you’re doing?

I do.

To my professional colleagues: Going forward, we’re going to see which one of us the administrative bodies of our society agree with, you or me. We are going to ask the APA, your licensing boards, and the legal system to render their opinions about that question; Do you need to know stuff or not? Let’s find out their opinion on the matter.

Bowlby – Minuchin – Beck – van der Kolk; attachment, family systems – personality disorders – complex trauma.

To my professional colleagues: I know this information and I am asserting that it is essential that all mental health professionals working with court-involved attachment pathology know this information. Your position is what? That you don’t need to know this information? That ignorance is acceptable?

That’s an interesting position to take, that ignorance is acceptable and that knowledge is unnecessary.

To my professional colleagues: I guess we’ll just have to agree to disagree on that, and we’ll just have to see which one of us the APA and your licensing boards and the courts agree with; you… or me. Is the standard and established knowledge of professional psychology required for the practice of psychology or not? Is ignorance acceptable?

Oh… and to my professional colleagues, one more thing… If you’re wrong… then you may have failed in your “duty to protect” by not conducting an appropriate (trauma-informed) assessment of the family pathology – because of your ignorance. Yikes, you missed diagnosing child abuse – failing in your duty to protect – because of your ignorance of the standard and established knowledge in professional psychology.

2019 is looking to be an interesting year.

Craig Childress, Psy.D.

Clinical Psychologist, PSY 18857

Higher Ground

Higher Realms Of Existence – A New Energy Coming

In total, there are twelve realms of existence or dimensions of consciousness.

Most of the time, we are only really concerned with our physical world – but there are higher realms of existence that we encounter during our journeys.

So let’s take a look at those higher realms of existence and how they differ from the 3D world we experience on Earth.

3D: The Physical Realm Of Existence

We are all very familiar with the 3D world, though we should be careful not to read that as the 3-dimensional world. 3D in this context refers to “third density”, due to the way that these realms are laid out.

The different realms are not separate and distinct places. The density of consciousness marks them.…

In 3D, we are tied to the physical realm. Most of humanity is today living in 3D. But humanity will soon undergo a change in consciousness brought on by a minority of people ascending to higher densities.

At that point, when we hit consciousness critical mass, everyone will be elevated into 4D.

4D: Behold The Astral Plane

The 4th density, or 4D realm, is where we go when our incarnation in the physical realm comes to a close.

However, many of us experience 4D on a nightly basis during dreams. Some even live in 4D, at least for a while, though it is difficult to maintain this for long with our physical bodies needing us to present to function.

4D itself is split in to twelve density layers, each subtly different from the last. Those who are able to live in 4D often spend their time exploring the various layers of the 4D realm, unlocking the secrets that are held within.

When we move entirely into 4D, we undergo a process of healing. The 3D world takes its toll on us, and it is in 4D that we discover the tools we need in order to effect this healing.

5D: The Realm Of Souls

In 5D, we see the world from an entirely new perspective.

5D is where we go when we prepare for our next incarnation. It is where the plans are made, where soul contracts are signed and from where we depart when we return to the physical realm once more.

5D consciousness is radically different to 3D and 4D. Rather than being tethered by the limited experience of the body or the ego, we experience the perspective of our soul.

Our souls can see far into the future, way back into the distant past, and from any perspective they wish. This soul ability is a powerful tool that helps us to contribute to the consciousness the Universe experiences as a whole.

Very few people achieve 5D in their lifetime, but there are some that do. These are often souls nearing the end of this part of their journey.

Soon enough, as the twin flame era peaks, we will all ascend to a higher realm of existence. Humanity is on the precipice of a huge shift in consciousness, ready to usher in an era of love, unity and peace.

© 2018 spiritualunite.com all rights reserved

11/8/18. Karmic relationships

Purpose Of Karmic Relationships – Preparation For Your Twin Flame

November 8, 2018

Karmic relationships are essential for your soul’s journey through this life. Understanding karmic relationships and the purpose they serve can help you not only to deal with the ups and downs of karmic relationships, but also to understand the nature of your journey.

But these karmic relationships are a little complex, leading many people to be confused about what they are.

So we’re going to dive in and give you a full rundown of karmic relationships and the purposes they serve.

Soul Contracts With Karmic Partners

Before we were born into this life, we were in a state of transition from the last.

We do not enter life without purpose – or baggage. Our many reincarnations all serve the higher purpose of achieving enlightenment and ascension.

We are not alone in this mission. We have a soul family – called a soul group – that promise each other to provide the opportunities for personal growth that we all need in our lives.

That promise is called a soul contract, and soul contracts are almost unbreakable.

Karmic Relationships With Soulmates

As long as we are following our soul path, we will meet our soulmates at some point in our lives.

Contrary to popular belief, we have many soulmates. These are the souls we are closely related to, and when we meet them, we are placed in the perfect environment to allow us to spend time towards self-improvement, personal growth and pursuing higher causes.

Unfortunately, these relationships are often rocky, at best.

These relationships are usually highly charged, highly emotional and entirely turbulent. There will be lots of ups, but there will also be lots of downs.

Being in this proximity, sharing intimate moments with a soul whose vibrations match yours so closely, can be as emotionally exhausting as they are exciting.

And it is in that truth that we can find the purpose of the karmic relationship.

The Purpose Of Karmic Relationships

We cannot walk our soul’s path alone. If we did, we would end life in the same place that we started, having lived without learning.

Our soulmates, with whom we have our karmic relationships, act as catalysts for personal growth. We bring the best and the worst out in each other, and it is only when our flaws are brought to light by another that we can indeed work on them.

The reason that we need our soulmates for these karmic relationships is that without the close soul ties our egos tend to get in the way. We protect ourselves emotionally from most partners – we cannot do the same for our soulmates, we merely must experience, learn and grow.

By way of a final word, some karmic relationships can become more than just tumultuous and stray into a more dangerous territory. If your karmic partner becomes abusive, it is a sign that you have both gotten everything you can from that karmic relationship. Never stand for abuse.

But that’s rare. For most, karmic relationships provide personal growth and self-improvement required for our soul’s journey. And, of course, these relationships lead directly to the most important karmic relationship of them all – the Twin Flame Relationship.

© 2018 spiritualunite.com all rights reserved

Epigenetic memories are passed down 14 generations

Die

Game-changing research reveals: Epigenetic memories are passed down 14 successive generations

memories


The past of our ancestors lives on through us: Groundbreaking research illustrates how parental experience is not only epigenetically imprinted onto offspring, but onto an unprecedented number of future generations. Rather than occurring over the elongated time scale of millions of years, genetic change can transpire in real biological time through nanoparticles known as exosomes.
 

Until recently, it was believed that our genes dictate our destiny. That we are slated for the diseases that will ultimately beset us based upon the pre-wired indecipherable code written in stone in our genetic material. The burgeoning field of epigenetics, however, is overturning these tenets, and ushering in a school of thought where nurture, not nature, is seen to be the predominant influence when it comes to genetic expression and our freedom from or affliction by chronic disease. 

Epigenetics: The Demise of Biological Determinism 

Epigenetics, or the study of the physiological mechanisms that silence or activate genes, encompasses processes which alter gene function without changing the sequence of nucleotide base pairs in our DNA. Translated literally to mean “in addition to changes in genetic sequence,” epigenetics includes processes such as methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, sumolyation, and ubiquitylation which can be transmitted to daughter cells upon cell division (1). Methylation, for example, is the attachment of simple methyl group tags to DNA molecules, which can repress transcription of a gene when it occurs in the region of a gene promoter. This simple methyl group, or a carbon bound to three hydrogen molecules, effectively turns the gene off. 

Post-translational modifications of histone proteins is another epigenetic process. Histones help to package and condense the DNA double helix into the cell nucleus in a complex called chromatin, which can be modified by enzymes, acetyl groups, and forms of RNA called small interfering RNAs and microRNAs (1). These chemical modifications of chromatin influence its three-dimensional structure, which in turn governs its accessibility for DNA transcription and dictates whether genes are expressed or not. 

We inherit one allele, or variant, of each gene from our mother and the other from our father. If the result of epigenetic processes is imprinting, a phenomenon where one of the two alleles of a gene pair is turned off, this can generate a deleterious health outcome if the expressed allele is defective or increases our susceptibility to infections or toxicants (1). Studies link cancers of nearly all types, neurobehavioral and cognitive dysfunction, respiratory illnesses, autoimmune disorders, reproductive anomalies, and cardiovascular disease to epigenetic mechanisms (1). For example, the cardiac antiarrhythmic drug procainamide and the antihypertensive agent hydralazine can cause lupus in some people by causing aberrant patterns of DNA methylation and disrupting signaling pathways (1). 

Genes Load the Gun, Environment Pulls the Trigger 

Pharmaceuticals, however, are not the only agents that can induce epigenetic disturbances. Whether you were born via vaginal birth or Cesarean section, breastfed or bottle-fed, raised with a pet in the house, or infected with certain childhood illnesses all influence your epigenetic expression. Whether you are sedentary, pray, smoke, mediate, do yoga, have an extensive network of social support or are alienated from your community-all of your lifestyle choices play into your risk for disease operating through mechanisms of epigenetics. 

In fact, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that genetics account for only 10% of disease, with the remaining 90% owing to environmental variables (2). An article published in the Public Library of Science One (PLoS One) entitled “Genetic factors are not the major causes of chronic diseases” echoes these claims, citing that chronic disease is only 16.4% genetic, and 84.6% environmental (3). These concepts make sense in light of research on the exposome, the cumulative measure of all the environmental insults an individual incurs during their life course that determines susceptibility to disease (4) 

In delineating the totality of exposures to which an individual is subjected over their lifetime, the exposome can be subdivided into three overlapping and intertwined domains. One segment of the exposome called the internal environment is comprised of processes innate to the body which impinge on the cellular milieu. This encompasses hormones and other cellular messengers, oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, bodily morphology, the gut microbiota, aging and biochemical stress (5). 

Another portion of the exposome, the specific external environment, consists of exposures including pathogens, radiation, chemical contaminants and pollutants, and medical interventions, as well as dietary, lifestyle, and occupational elements (5). At an even broader sociocultural and ecological level is the segment of the exposome called the general external environment, which may circumscribe factors such as psychological stress, socioeconomic status, geopolitical variables, educational attainment, urban or rural residence, and climate (5). 

Transgenerational Inheritance of Epigenetic Change: Endocrine Disruptors Trigger Infertility in Future Generations 

Scientists formerly speculated that epigenetic changes disappear with each new generation during gametogenesis, the formation of sperm and ovum, and after fertilization. However, this theory was first challenged by research published in the journal Science which demonstrated that transient exposure of pregnant rats to the insecticide methoxychlor, an estrogenic compound, or the fungicide vinclozolin, an antiandrogenic compound, resulted in increased incidence of male infertility and decreased sperm production and viability in 90% of the males of four subsequent generations that were tracked (1). 

Most notably, these reproductive effects were associated with derangements in DNA methylation patterns in the germ line, suggesting that epigenetic changes are passed on to future generations. The authors concluded, “The ability of an environmental factor (for example, endocrine disruptor) to reprogram the germ line and to promote a transgenerational disease state has significant implications for evolutionary biology and disease etiology” (6, p. 1466). This may suggest that the endocrine-disrupting, fragrance-laden personal care products and commercial cleaning supplies to which we are all exposed may trigger fertility problems in multiple future generations. 

Transgenerational Inheritance of Traumatic Episodes: Parental Experience Shapes Traits of Offspring 

In addition, traumatic experiences may be transmitted to future generations via epigenetics as a way to inform progeny about salient information needed for their survival (7). In one study, researchers wafted the cherry-like chemical acetophenone into the chambers of mice while administering electric shocks, conditioning the mice to fear the scent (7). This reaction was passed onto two successive generations, which shuddered significantly more in the presence of acetophenone despite never having encountered it compared to descendants of mice that had not received this conditioning (7). 

The study suggests that certain characteristics of the parental sensory environment experienced before conception can remodel the sensory nervous system and neuroanatomy in subsequently conceived generations (7). Alterations in brain structures that process olfactory stimuli were observed, as well as enhanced representation of the receptor that perceives the odor compared to control mice and their progeny (7). These changes were conveyed by epigenetic mechanisms, as illustrated by evidence that the acetophenone-sensing genes in fearful mice were hypomethylated, which may have enhanced expression of odorant-receptor genes during development leading to acetophenone sensitivity (7). 

The Human Experience of Famine and Tragedy Spans Generations 

The mouse study, which illustrates how germ cells (egg and sperm) exhibit dynamic plasticity and adaptability in response to environmental signals, is mirrored by human studies. For instance, exposures to certain stressors such as starvation during the gestational period are associated with poor health outcomes for offspring. Women who undergo famine before conception of her offspring have been demonstrated to give birth to children with lower self-reported mental health and quality of life, for example (8). 

Studies similarly highlight that, “Maternal famine exposure around the time of conception has been related to prevalence of major affective disorders, antisocial personality disorders, schizophrenia, decreased intracranial volume, and congenital abnormalities of the central nervous system” (8). Gestational exposure to the Dutch Famine of the mid-twentieth century is also associated with lower perceived health (9), as well as enhanced incidence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and obesity in offspring (8). Maternal undernourishment during pregnancy leads to neonatal adiposity, which is a predictor of future obesity (10), in the grandchildren (11). 

The impact of epigenetics is also exemplified by research on the intergenerational effects of trauma, which illuminates that descendants of people who survived the Holocaust exhibit abnormal stress hormone profiles, and low cortisol production in particular (12). Because of their impaired cortisol response and altered stress reactivity, children of Holocaust survivors are often at enhanced risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression(13). 

Intrauterine exposure to maternal stress in the form of intimate partner violence during pregnancy can also lead to changes in the methylation status of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) of their adolescent offspring (14). These studies suggest that an individual’s experience of trauma can predispose their descendants to mental illness, behavioral problems, and psychological abnormalities due to “transgenerational epigenetic programming of genes operating in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis,” a complex set of interactions among endocrine glands which determine stress response and resilience (14). 

Body Cells Pass Genetic Information Directly Into Sperm Cells 

Not only that, but studies are illuminating that genetic information can be transferred through the germ line cells of a species in real time. These paradigm-shifting findings overturn conventional logic which postulates that genetic change occurs over the protracted time scale of hundreds of thousands or even millions of years. In a relatively recent study, exosomes were found to be the medium through which information was transferred from somatic cells to gametes. 

This experiment entailed xenotransplantation, a process where living cells from one species are grafted into a recipient of another species. Specifically, human melanoma tumor cells genetically engineered to express genes for a fluorescent tracer enzyme called EGFP-encoding plasmid were transplanted into mice. The experimenters found that information-containing molecules containing the EGFP tracer were released into the animals’ blood (15). Exosomes, or “specialized membranous nano-sized vesicles derived from endocytic compartments that are released by many cell types” were found among the EGFP trackable molecules (16, p. 447). 

Exosomes, which are synthesized by all plant and animal cells, contain distinct protein repertoires and are created when inward budding occurs from the membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), a type of organelle that serves as a membrane-bound sorting compartment within eukaryotic cells (16). Exosomes contain microRNA (miRNA) and small RNA, types of non-coding RNA involved in regulating gene expression (16). In this study, exosomes delivered RNAs to mature sperm cells (spermatozoa) and remained stored there (15). 

The researchers highlight that this kind of RNA can behave as a “transgenerational determinant of inheritable epigenetic variations and that spermatozoal RNA can carry and deliver information that cause phenotypic variations in the progeny” (15). In other words, the RNA carried to sperm cells by exosomes can preside over gene expression in a way that changes the observable traits and disease risk of the offspring as well as its morphology, development, and physiology. 

This study was the first to elucidate RNA-mediated transfer of information from somatic to germ cells, which fundamentally overturns what is known as the Weisman barrier, a principle which states that the movement of hereditary information from genes to body cells is unidirectional, and that the information transmitted by egg and sperm to future generations remains independent of somatic cells and parental experience (15). 

Further, this may bear implications for cancer risk, as exosomes contain vast amounts of genetic information which can be source of lateral gene transfer (17) and are abundantly liberated from tumor cells (18). This can be reconciled with the fact that exosome-resembling vesicles have been observed in various mammals (15), including humans, in close proximity to sperm in anatomical structures such as the epididymis as well as in seminal fluid (19). These exosomes may thereafter be propagated to future generations with fertilization and augment cancer risk in the offspring (20). 

The researchers concluded that sperm cells can act as the final repositories of somatic cell-derived information, which suggests that epigenetic insults to our body cells can be relayed to future generations. This notion is confirmatory of the evolutionary theory of “soft inheritance” proposed by French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, whereby characteristics acquired over the life of an organism are transmitted to offspring, a concept which modern genetics previously rejected before the epigenetics arrived on the scene. In this way, the sperm are able to spontaneously assimilate exogenous DNA and RNA molecules, behaving both as vector of their native genome and of extrachromosomal foreign genetic material which is “then delivered to oocytes at fertilization with the ensuing generation of phenotypically modified animals” (15). 

Epigenetic Changes Endure Longer Than Ever Predicted 

In a recent study, nematode worms were manipulated to harbor a transgene for a fluorescent protein, which made the worms glow under ultraviolet light when the gene was activated (21). When the worms were incubated under the ambient temperature of 20° Celsius (68° Fahrenheit), negligible glowing was observed, indicating low activity of the transgene (21). However, transferring the worms to a warmer climate of 25°C (77° F) stimulated expression of the gene, as the worms glowed brightly (21). 

In addition, this temperature-induced alteration in gene expression was found to persist for at least 14 generations, representing the preservation of epigenetic memories of environmental change across an unprecedented number of generations (21). In other words, the worms transmitted memories of past environmental conditions to their descendants, through the vehicle of epigenetic change, as a way to prepare their offspring for prevailing environmental conditions and ensure their survivability. 

Future Directions: Where Do We Go From Here? 

Taken cumulatively, the aforementioned research challenges traditional Mendelian laws of genetics, which postulate that genetic inheritance occurs exclusively through sexual reproduction and that traits are passed to offspring through the chromosomes contained in germ line cells, and never through somatic (bodily) cells. Effectively, this proves the existence of non-Mendelian transgenerational inheritance, where traits separate from chromosomal genes are transmitted to progeny, resulting in persistent phenotypes that endure across generations (22). 

This research imparts new meaning to the principle of seven generation stewardship taught by Native Americans, which mandates that we consider the welfare of seven generations to come in each of our decisions. Not only should we embody this approach in practices of environmental sustainability, but we would be wise to consider how the conditions to which we subject our bodies-the pollution and toxicants which permeate the landscape and pervade our bodies, the nutrient-devoid soil that engenders micronutrient-poor food, the disruptions to our circadian rhythm due to the ubiquity of electronic devices, our divorce from nature and the demise of our tribal affiliations-may translate into ill health effects and diminished quality of life for a previously unfathomed number of subsequent generations. 

Hazards of modern agriculture, the industrial revolution, and contemporary living are the “known or suspected drivers behind epigenetic processes…including heavy metals, pesticides, diesel exhaust, tobacco smoke, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hormones, radioactivity, viruses, bacteria, and basic nutrients” (1, p. A160). Serendipitously, however, many inputs such as exercise, mindfulness, and bioactive components in fruits and vegetables such as sulforaphane in cruciferous vegetables, resveratrol from red grapes, genistein from soy, diallyl sulphide from garlic, curcumin from turmeric, betaine from beets, and green teacatechin can favorably modify epigenetic phenomena “either by directly inhibiting enzymes that catalyze DNA methylation or histone modifications, or by altering the availability of substrates necessary for those enzymatic reactions” (23, p. 8). 

This quintessentially underscores that the air we breathe, the food we eat, the thoughts we allow, the toxins to which we are exposed, and the experiences we undergo may persevere in our descendants and remain in our progeny long after we are gone. We must be cognizant of the effects of our actions, as they elicit a ripple effect through the proverbial sands of time. 

References 

1. Weinhold, B. (2006). Epigenetics: The Science of Change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(3), A160-A167. 

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Exposome and Exposomics. Retrieved from here 

3. Rappaport, S.M. (2016). Genetic factors are not the major causes of chronic diseases. PLoS One, 11(4), e0154387. 

4. Vrijheid, M. (2014). The exposome: a new paradigm to study the impact of environment on health. Thorax, 69(9), 876-878. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204949. 

5. Wild, C.P. (2012). The exposome: from concept to utility. International Journal of Epidemiology, 41, 24-32. doi:10.1093/ije/dyr236 

6. Anway, M.D. et al. (2005). Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility. Science, 308(5727), 1466-1469. 

7. Dias, B.G., & Ressler, K.J. (2014). Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations. Nature Neuroscience, 17(1), 89-98. 

8. Stein, A.D. et al. (2009). Maternal exposure to the Dutch Famine before conception and during pregnancy: quality of life and depressive symptoms in adult offspring. Epidemiology, 20(6), doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3181b5f227. 

9. Roseboom, T.J. et al. (2003). Perceived health of adults after prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. Paediatrics Perinatal Epidemiology, 17, 391-397. 

10. Badon, S.E. et al. (2014). Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Adiposity in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study-North American Region. Obesity (Silver Spring), 22(7), 1731-1738. 

11. Veenendaal, M.V. et al. (2013). Transgenerational effects of prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch famine. BJOG, 120(5), 548-53. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528. 

12. Yehuda, R., & Bierer, L.M. (2008). Transgenerational transmission of cortisol and PTSD risk. Progress in Brain Research, 167, 121-135. 

13. Aviad-Wilcheck, Y. et al. (2013). The effects of the survival characteristics of parent Holocaust survivors on offsprings’ anxiety and depression symptoms. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 50(3), 210-216. 

14. Radke, K.M. et al. (2011). Transgenerational impact of intimate partner violence on methylation in the promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor. Translational Psychiatry, 1, e21. doi: 10.1038/tp.2011.21. 

15. Cossetti, C. et al. (2014). Soma-to-Germline Transmission of RNA in Mice Xenografted with Human Tumour Cells: Possible Transport by Exosomes. PLoS One, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101629. 

16. Zomer, A. et al. (2010). Exosomes: Fit to deliver small RNA. Communicative and Integrative Biology, 3(5), 447-450. 

17. Balaj, L. et al. (2011) Tumour microvesicles contain retrotransposon elements and amplified oncogene sequences. Natural Communications, 2, 180. 

18. Azmi, A.S., Bao, B., & Sarkar, F.H. (2013). Exosomes in cancer development, metastasis, and drug resistance: a comprehensive review. Cancer Metastasis Review, 32, 623-643 

19. Poliakov, A. et al. (2009). Structural heterogeneity and protein composition of exosomes-like vesicles (prostasomes) in human semen. Prostate, 69, 159-167. 

20. Cheng, R.Y. et al. (2004) Epigenetic and gene expression changes related to transgenerational carcinogenesis. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 40, 1-11. 

21. Klosin, A. et al. (2017). Transgenerational transmission of environmental information in C. elegans. Science, 356(6335). 

22. Lim, J.P., & Brunet, A. (2013). Bridging the transgenerational gap with epigenetic memory. Trends in Genetics, 29(3), 176-186. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2012.12.008 

23. Choi, S.-W., & Friso, S. (2010). Epigenetics: A New Bridge between Nutrition and Health Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 1(1), 8-16. doi:10.3945/an.110.1004.

Queen for my lovelies …Own this

PISCES (Feb. 19-March 20): Scientists at Goldsmiths University in London 
did a study to determine the catchiest pop song ever recorded. After 
extensive research in which they evaluated an array of factors, they 
decided that Queen’s “We Are the Champions” is the song that more 
people love to sing than any other. This triumphant tune happens to be
your theme song in 2019. I suggest you learn the lyrics and melody, and 
sing it once every day. It should help you build on the natural confidence-
building influences that will be streaming into your life.

https://youtu.be/Jmd4OLzhQw0