On the Chemical Imbalance Hoax
Neuroleptics, so called “anti-psychotics,” do not exert their therapeutic (pharmacological target) effects on psychosis (positive symptoms of schizophrenia) by rectifying a brain abnormality, such as a chemical imbalance, nor do they target any physiological process that produces the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but rather neuroleptics suppress symptoms of schizophrenia, by a profound slowing up and dampening down of mental processes by putting a brake on dopaminergic neurotransmission – they arrest natural brain function. Neuroleptics are major tranquilizers, neurological inhibitors, suppressants and depressants of the central nervous system. Neuroleptic means “nerve seizing”. Neuroleptics work to treat psychosis by disrupting normal brain function in the reward (mesolimbic) pathway, and in the mesocortical pathway – connecting to the frontal lobe (the part of our brain that makes us human). Neuroleptics do not exert their psychosis-treating effects by targeting an underlying disease process or brain abnormality, such as a chemical imbalance, i.e. dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system = overactivity of dopamine neurotransmission in the 4 dopaminergic pathways: mesolimbic (reward), mesocortical (humanity), nigrostriatal (target of antiparkinsonian agents), and tuberoinfundibular (hormones, i.e. prolactin). Neuroleptics seize the central nervous system, dampen down dopaminergic brain activity, suppress function by occupying 70% – 90% dopamine D2 receptors. Neuroleptics are first and foremost psychoactive drugs. Their psychoactive effects (their global alterations of physical and mental states) treat symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuroleptics are not antidotes for psychosis. Neuroleptics are not disease-specific treatments in schizophrenia/bipolar, but rather mind altering agents producing such mental and physical alterations that suppress symptoms (superimpose upon the symptoms that they are treating). Neuroleptic effects (target and side effects) may be useful in treating (dampening down) psychotic states, but that depends on the context. They do not exert their therapeutic effects by reversing or rectifying a disease process, nor are they curative, they cannot cure psychosis, nor prevent, nor decrease the probability that one will become ill or lessen the severity of the illness (quite the contrary!). The effects of a neuroleptic can be useful, but that depends on the context, and it is not the same as fixing an underlying brain abnormality (i.e. bio-chemical imbalance). The chemical imbalance theory of schizophrenia/bipolar carries no credibility in the modern psychiatric research establishment. The researchers do not find there to be a lesion (pathology) in the dopamine neurotransmitter system that is the primary cause of schizophrenia/bipolar. The chemical imbalance theory of schizophrenia/bipolar is a hoax.